"Prayers Before Battle:
by Dr. Joel Hayward
The [U.S.] Army Chaplaincy
Winter-Spring 2002, pp. 32-40.
|"There is many a boy who looks on war as all glory, but, boys, it is all hell. General William Tecumseh Shermans famous speech at Columbus, Ohio, on 12 August 1880 sums up what most people who have lived through the privations and horrors of war service personnel and civilians alike actually believe about their experiences. War is frightening and destructive and tends to bring out the worst in people: hatred, cowardice, violence, brutality. It is hell.|
Yet, paradoxically, war also brings out the very best human traits: love of country and kin, self-sacrifice, courage and comradeship. In many cases the ever-present specter of pain and death also raises interest in spiritual issues and creates a greater reliance on Gods grace, comfort and protection. Countless unknown warriors, and even many of historys greatest leaders, fall into this category. Devout and God-fearing, they have seen true value in seeking Gods counsel and blessings before, during and after battle.
This article focuses on three of warfares greatest commanders, two of them seldom thought of as devout or godly but often regarded as aggressive and warlike, to show that even those who choose the profession of arms, and excel at their trade, are not necessarily devoid of spiritual awareness. Relying on Gods will and blessings as much, if not more, than on their armies or fleets abilities, these three heroes nonetheless remained passionately committed to the justice of their causes and used all their energy and skills to attain victory over their enemies.
They also stressed the importance of prayer, asking God not only for protection and success, but also for generosity and humility if He should give them victory, and peace and comfort if He should withhold it. One of the prayers below even asks God for a submissive heart should He choose to take him from this world. Its prescient author died soon after, but with dignity, humility and a lack of fear. He accepted the Lords will and looked forward to being in His presence.
. . . . . . .
Prayer of Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson
These beautiful words are found in the personal diary of Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson (1758 - 1805), who is naval historys grandest figure and the most well known and revered warrior in Englands pantheon of heroes. In an age when a successful admiral might gain one victory in fleet or squadron action during his lifetime, Nelson gained three: at the Battle of the Nile (1798), the Battle of Copenhagen (1801) and the Battle of Trafalgar (1805). The scale and significance of these victories was also unparalleled. His taking of nineteen French and Spanish ships off Cape Trafalgar the great and glorious victory he prayed for gave him more enemy ships than any of his predecessors had captured or destroyed in all their battles put together, and, more important, it secured for Great Britain command of the sea for over a century.
Killed by a sharpshooter at the height of the battle, Nelson died the way he always wanted: at the moment of victory in a great battle in the service of his country. He had devoted virtually his entire life, from 12-year-old midshipman to 47-year-old vice admiral, to his great loves: God, his country and the Navy. For them he sacrificed much blood, an eye, an arm and finally his life. Yet, he was no saint. His vanity was legendary, as was his craving for fame. The only factor mitigating against his egotism, which often prompted foolish behaviour, was his total lack of malevolence. Unlike Napoleon Bonaparte, the other larger-than-life figure from the period, Nelson never sought to dominate, exploit or overpower people.
Aside from during battle, which transformed him into a firebrand, he was consistently gentle, encouraging and generous and quite capable of weeping when friends and family or even sailors on his ships suffered misfortune. His seven-year affair with Lady Emma Hamilton, wife of a British diplomat, also damages his otherwise spotless reputation, especially as the great love between them soon led him to separate permanently, and in unpleasant circumstances, from his ill-suited but long-suffering wife, Fanny. Yet, even that departure from the Christian values he extolled is balanced by the fact that that he remained deeply, rapturously in love with Emma, and she with him. In Gods eyes, he believed their union was blessed.
In any event, Nelsons flaws and poor choices only show him to be typically human, capable of making mistakes like anyone else. He realised this, of course, and made peace with himself, as well as one can, by staying ever thankful for the talents as a warrior and the opportunities to use them that God had bestowed upon him. For over 200 years now, Britain has felt the same gratitude. And for good reason: no other Briton, with the possible exception of Sir Winston Churchill, has done more to inspire the nation to unite against tyranny. The Dukes of Marlborough and Wellington certainly won splendid triumphs, but they never raised national morale and inspired the British people to fight for victory to the degree that Nelson and Churchill did.
Nelsons devotion to God, country and navy stems from his birth in September 1758 as the son of a humble Norfolk parson (who was doubtless his greatest early influence) and his entry into naval service at the tender age of twelve. His first years at sea brought him under the guidance of William Locker, a fatherly captain and faithful Christian, who inspired the young Nelson to share his loves of God, England and the sea. At age 18 Nelson rose to lieutenant and two years later to commander of a frigate. Thus, the 20-year-old became the youngest captain in the history of the Royal Navy.
He became a rear admiral and a household name in England following his heroic and skillful contribution to the Battle of Cape St. Vincent on 14 February 1797, and despite losing his right arm in a failed attack on Santa Cruz de Tenerife later that year (to go with the eye blinded three years earlier at Calvi) he never caused the British people to grow disillusioned with his efforts. On the contrary, they delighted in the news that he destroyed Napoleons Egyptian invasion fleet on 1 August 1798, and forced the Danes, through a tough battle at Copenhagen on 2 April 1801, to cease supporting France and agree to a treaty with Britain.
When a French invasion of Britain loomed in 1801, his great popularity prompted the Admiralty to place him in charge of Britains naval forces in the channel, where his presence would boost morale and reassure the fearful. After a short spell of peace with France ended in May 1803 and rekindled fear of invasion, an exhausted Nelson once more gave up the rest he craved to meet his nations expectation of vigilance, valour and victory. After trying to entice the French Mediterranean Fleet out of Toulon so he could destroy it once and for all, Nelson failed to stop it slipping through his net and escaping from the Mediterranean. Gripped by anxiety about its possible link-up with a Spanish fleet, which would probably attempt an invasion of Britain, Nelson doggedly pursued the French fleet for four months back and forth across the Atlantic. He failed to bring it to battle, but won further praise at home for protecting the West Indies and displaying such tenacity and dedication.
In September 1805 Nelson rejoined his fleet after a brief period of shore leave and prepared a final showdown with the Combined Franco-Spanish Fleet. This time he would not let it escape without battle. The stakes were too high. Nelson conceived a marvelous tactical plan. Rather than engage the enemy in parallel lines of battle (the pattern of naval warfare for over a century) he would attack the enemy fleet from a right angle, using two separate squadrons to break the enemy line into three sections, each of which would be defeated in detail. It was a bold plan no, a most perilous plan, especially as it would expose the ships in the two spearheads to heavy cannon fire yet Nelson, selfless and valiant, refused to place himself into a ship further back. To ensure proper execution and to inspire his sailors, he would remain in one of the two spearhead ships that would bear the brunt of the enemys firepower.
Nelson was acutely aware of the risks, for both his fleet and his own person. Five weeks before the battle commenced he wrote in his diary these moving, humble words: May the great God whom I adore enable me to meet the expectations of my country; and if it is His good pleasure that I should return, my thanks will never cease being offered up to the Throne of His Mercy. If it is His good providence to cut short my days upon Earth, I bow with the greatest submission, relying that He will protect those so dear to me, that I may leave behind. His will be done: Amen, Amen, Amen.
On 21 October 1805, the day Nelson realised battle was imminent and drafted his famous battle prayer, he prayed on his knees in his cabin before ordering the enemy to be engaged according to his innovative plan. It worked marvelously, with the Combined Fleet suffering a humiliating and total defeat. Nelson lived long enough to learn that he had justified his nations trust and permanently removed the threat of invasion. Thank God I have done my duty, he sighed as he lay dying. He asked those present to ensure that Lady Hamilton and the daughter she bore him would be taken care of. Then, with his pain increasing and death approaching, his mind turned again to the Creator he soon anticipated meeting and to whom he had committed his soul. To Dr. Scott he whispered, almost as a rhetorical question: Doctor, I have not been a great sinner. The last words caught by Dr. Scott, bending close to the great admirals lips, were the fitting: God and my Country. Despite his flaws, Vice Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson had served them both extremely well.
. . . . . . .
General Robert E. Lees Call to Prayer
Lees reputation was so high when the Civil War broke out in 1861 that President Lincoln and Lieutenant General Winfield Scott offered him field command of the United States Army. Lee declined, considering himself duty-bound to serve his home state, Virginia, even though he personally did not favour the southern states secession from the Union. Lee soon became a general in the Confederate States Army but, for almost a year, his strategic mind and flair for battle were wasted on the organisation of coastal defences. By mid-1862, however, he had become both President Jefferson Daviss principal military advisor and commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. In many great battles throughout the next three years Lee engaged and often beat stronger Union forces, demonstrating his ability to read a situation instantly, knack for anticipating an enemys movements, sure grasp of defensive tactics, and inspirational leadership.
Lees greatest challenge actually lay ahead: convincing the southern states that, although God had allowed their enemies to triumph over them, they should accept His will and reconcile themselves to the outcome, which involved the restoration of the north and south as a single nation. Lee rose to the challenge and became one of Americas most prominent proponents of a just peace, a peace that would allow the south to rejoin the Union with dignity and honour. Lees Military Secretary later wrote:
Lee himself summed up his views in a letter to the Governor of Virginia, who found it hard to accept defeat. Lee gently told him that:
Lees godliness, humility and devotion to the cause of peace certainly helped calm tensions in the immediate postwar period. And they did much for Lees already healthy reputation in the north. He became president of Washington College, Lexington, Virginia (today Washington and Lee University) and earned widespread praise for his devotion to his students and his inspiration to young Americans everywhere. His death on 12 October 1870 was mourned by northerners and southerners alike, and his name still invokes strong, and universally positive sentiments.
. . . . . . .
Prayer of General George S. Patton, Jr.
This prayer is probably the most famous battle prayer of the 20th century. It was written by a chaplain upon instructions from the toughest, most aggressive operational commander the Allies had in World War II: General George S. Blood and Guts Patton, whom few would normally associate with such reverence and Christian devotion. Instead, he is well known for his genius for war as well as for his cursing, his vain and theatrical appearance and manner and his angry slapping of a soldier he considered cowardly. Yet he was devout and believed fervently in the power of Gods intervention. His most famous prayer (reproduced above) had a wide circulation, with 250,000 copies in card form being distributed to the soldiers of the United States Third Army at a critical time in the Allied advance through France towards Germany. And its apparent positive result as requested, the torrential rains gave way to fair weather for battle made it legendary.
Aware after D-Day in June 1944 that defeat loomed, but still deluding himself that he might stave it off even at the eleventh hour, Adolf Hitler planned one last desperate attempt to stop the Western Allies and force a truce on them. If his Wehrmacht could drive a wedge between American and British forces by pushing through the Ardennes forest and taking Antwerp in similar fashion to their 1940 attack they might crush Allied morale and secure for the Nazi leader a negotiated peace in the west. The Wehrmacht could then concentrate on defeating his real enemy: the Soviet Union.
ONeill replied that he would soon return with something appropriate. He pondered the question: What use would General Patton make of the prayer? Surely not for private devotion. If he intended it for circulation to chaplains or others, with Christmas not far removed, it might be proper to type the Army Commanders Christmas Greetings on the reverse side. So ONeill drafted this message for the other side of the small prayer card.
Patton was delighted and approved both messages, ordering that they be printed on a wallet-size prayer card that each and every soldier in his army could keep on him. The general then explained why he wanted the prayer written:
Endnotes and Recommended Reading
C. Hibbert, Nelson: A Personal History (London: Viking, 1994).
Dr. Joel Hayward is a senior lecturer in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University in New Zealand. He has published widely on doctrinal, tactical and strategic issues and is currently working on a thematic study of Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, the great English naval hero.